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Planta Med. 2015 Feb 11.
Synergistic Effect of Fragrant Herbs in Japanese Scent Sachets.
Fujiwara Y1, Ito M1.
The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils.
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The Magi followed the king star, the planet Jupiter, seen in the constellation Virgo, over Jerusalem.
Originally posted on The Sweet Smell of Success:
Did the Three Wise Men Want the Christ Child to be Wealthy and Healthy?
Hark, did the Herald Angels Sing about Oils?
So, you’re probably wondering, “What does Christmas have to do with essential oils?”
Well, you may recall the story of a visit by three wise men to the Christ Child, as told in the Bible, St. Matthew 2:1:
“. . now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem . . . they presented unto him gifts: gold, and frankincense and myrrh.”
Could it be those three wise men really were wise beyond their times? Obviously they wanted the newborn Christ Child to be wealthy (gold) and healthy.
Well, truthfully, numerous oils such as frankincense and myrrh were in fact quite a valuable commodity in ancient times – even more…
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Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009 Sep;49(3):354-60
Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil.
Khan MS1, Zahin M, Hasan S, Husain FM, Ahmad I.
1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.
To evaluate quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of plant essential oils using strains of Chromobacterium violaceum (CV12472 and CVO26) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1).
Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion method. Of the 21 essential oils, four oils showed varying levels of anti-QS activity. Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) oil showed promising anti-QS activity on both wild and mutant strains with zones of pigment inhibition 19 and 17 mm, respectively, followed by activity in cinnamon, lavender and peppermint oils. The effect of clove oil on the extent of violacein production was estimated photometrically and found to be concentration dependent. At sub-MICs of clove oil, 78.4% reduction in violacein production over control and up to 78% reduction in swarming motility in PAO1 over control were recorded. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of clove oil indicated presence of many phytocompounds. Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil could not exhibit anti-QS activity.
Presence of anti-QS activity in clove oil and other essential oils has indicated new anti-infective activity. The identification of anti-QS phytoconstituents is needed to assess the mechanism of action against both C. violaceum and Ps. aeruginosa.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:
Essential oils having new antipathogenic drugs principle because of its anti-QS activity might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.
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A systematic analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters in the human microbiome reveals a common family of antibiotics.
Donia MS1, Cimermancic P1, Schulze CJ2, Wieland Brown LC3, Martin J4, Mitreva M4, Clardy J5, Linington RG2, Fischbach MA6.
In complex biological systems, small molecules often mediate microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Using a systematic approach, we identified 3,118 small-molecule biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in genomes of human-associated bacteria and studied their representation in 752 metagenomic samples from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. Remarkably, we discovered that BGCs for a class of antibiotics in clinical trials, thiopeptides, are widely distributed in genomes and metagenomes of the human microbiota. We purified and solved the structure of a thiopeptide antibiotic, lactocillin, from a prominent member of the vaginal microbiota. We demonstrate that lactocillin has potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive vaginal pathogens, and we show that lactocillin and other thiopeptide BGCs are expressed in vivo by analyzing human metatranscriptomic sequencing data. Our findings illustrate the widespread distribution of small-molecule-encoding BGCs in the human microbiome, and they demonstrate the bacterial production of drug-like molecules in humans.