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Natural essential oils: A promising strategy for treating cardio-cerebrovascular diseases.

August 16, 2022

J Ethnopharmacol, 2022 p. 115421

Natural essential oils: A promising strategy for treating cardio-cerebrovascular diseases.

Long, Y; Li, D; Yu, S; Zhang, YL; Liu, SY; Wan, JY; Shi, A; Deng, J; Wen, J; Li, XQ; Ma, Y; Li, N; Yang, M

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Essential oils (EO) are volatile compounds obtained from different parts of natural plants, and have been used in national, traditional and folk medicine to treat various health problems all over the world. Records indicate that in history, herbal medicines rich in EO have been widely used for the treatment of CVDs in many countries, such as China.

AIM OF THE STUDY: This review focused on the traditional application and modern pharmacological mechanisms of herbal medicine EO against CVDs in preclinical and clinical trials through multi-targets synergy. Besides, the EO and anti-CVDs drugs were compared, and the broad application of EO was explained from the properties of drugs and aromatic administration routes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about EO and CVDs was collected from electronic databases such as Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The obtained data sets were sequentially arranged for better understanding of EO’ potential.

RESULTS: The study showed that EO had significant application in CVDs at different countries or regions since ancient times. Aiming at the complex pathological mechanisms of CVDs, including intracellular calcium overload, oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular endothelial cell injury and dysfunction and dyslipidemia, we summarized the roles of EO on CVDs in preclinical and clinical through multi-targets intervention. Besides, EO had the dual properties of drug and excipients. And aromatherapy was one of the complementary therapies to improve CVDs.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper reviewed the EO on traditional treatment, preclinical mechanism and clinical application of CVDs. As important sources of traditional medicines, EO’ remarkable efficacy had been confirmed in comprehensive literature reports, which showed that EO had great medicinal potential.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID: 35659628


The Effects of Aromatherapy on Anxiety and Depression in People With Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

August 16, 2022

Front Public Health, 2022 vol. 10 p. 853056

The Effects of Aromatherapy on Anxiety and Depression in People With Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Li, D; Li, Y; Bai, X; Wang, M; Yan, J; Cao, Y

Background: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in people with cancer. Medical therapies are usually prescribed to alleviate anxiety and depression, but they are associated with a variety of adverse effects. Recently, aromatherapy showed potential as a complementary medicine to improve psychological health and wellbeing. However, its effectiveness on relieving anxiety and depression has not been established.

Objective: This study explored the beneficial effects of aromatherapy on psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression in people with cancer.

Methods: We searched international databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Ebscohost, ProQuest and Scopus from inception to 31 May 2021. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. The systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Quantitative analysis was performed on the studies that met our inclusion criteria, and Meta-analysis was performed on the studies with available data by RevMan software.

Results: The quality of the literatures were assessed carefully by two researchers, a total of 17 studies were included in the systematic review and 10 articles were conducted in meta-analysis. The aromatherapy was effective in relieving anxiety (SMD = -0.49, p < 0.05) in people with cancer. Subgroup analysis suggested that most effective methods were aromatic massage (SMD = -0.70, p < 0.005), aromatherapy with lavender essential oils (SMD = -1.12, p < 0.01), short-time interventions (duration < 4weeks) (SMD = -0.87, p < 0.05) and studies in Asia (SMD = -0.83, p < 0.05). Regarding depression and psychological wellbeing, there were no difference between aromatherapy and control groups.

Conclusion: In cancer patients, the aromatherapy was effective for relieving anxiety. However, there was no beneficial effect on depression and psychological wellbeing.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021272465.

Copyright © 2022 Li, Li, Bai, Wang, Yan and Cao.

PMID: 35757624

PMCID: PMC9215260


Inhalation Aromatherapy via Brain-Targeted Nasal Delivery: Natural Volatiles or Essential Oils on Mood Disorders.

August 16, 2022

Front Pharmacol, 2022 vol. 13 p. 860043

Inhalation Aromatherapy via Brain-Targeted Nasal Delivery: Natural Volatiles or Essential Oils on Mood Disorders.

Cui, J; Li, M; Wei, Y; Li, H; He, X; Yang, Q; Li, Z; Duan, J; Wu, Z; Chen, Q; Chen, B; Li, G; Ming, X; Xiong, L; Qin, D

Mood disorders, also often referred to as affective disorders, are a group of psychiatric illnesses that severely impact mood and its related functions. The high medical expenditures have placed a significant financial burden on patients and their families. Aromatherapy is an alternative and complementary treatment that utilizes essential oils (EOs) or volatile oils (VOs) to achieve major therapeutic goals. In general, EOs are volatile chemicals that enter the body primarily through skin absorption and/or nasal inhalation. In addition, they can work through oral administration. Inhalation aromatherapy has shown unique advantages for treating mood disorders, especially depression, anxiety and mental disorders such as sleep disorder, which have been validated over the last decade through clinical and animal studies. Accumulating evidence has shown that EOs or VOs can bypass the blood-brain barrier to target brain tissue through the nasal-brain pathway. Subsequently, they act on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and limbic system in the brain to improve symptoms of anxiety, depression and improve sleep quality. Here, we review the natural aromatic plants’ volatiles or essential oils used commonly as adjuncts to manage mood disorders and illustrate the mechanisms of inhalation aromatherapy, and mainly summarized the application of transnasal inhalation aromatherapy in depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We conclude that aromatherapy does not cause side-effects, which is vastly different from commonly used psychotropic drugs. Inhalation aromatherapy via brain-targeted nasal delivery offers potentially efficacious treatment for mental disorders and merits further study.

Copyright © 2022 Cui, Li, Wei, Li, He, Yang, Li, Duan, Wu, Chen, Chen, Li, Ming, Xiong and Qin.

PMID: 35496310

PMCID: PMC9041268


Complementary and integrative remedies in the treatment of chronic pruritus: A review of clinical trials.

August 16, 2022

J Cosmet Dermatol, 2022

Complementary and integrative remedies in the treatment of chronic pruritus: A review of clinical trials.

Parvizi, MM; Salami, MH; Moini Jazani, A; Javaheri, R; Jaladat, AM; Handjani, F

BACKGROUND: Chronic pruritus is one of the most common conditions in dermatology and a common manifestation in many systemic diseases. Since the etiology of chronic pruritus remains somewhat unknown, hence, conventional medications may not always show a good therapeutic response. This finding has led both investigators and patients to use herbal and complementary remedies for its treatment. The aim of this study was to review clinical trials in which herbal and complementary medicine was used in the control and treatment of chronic pruritus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we reviewed related articles in this domain, from 2000 to 2020. The search involved electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and SID databases using the keywords “pruritus,” “itch,” “herb,” “complementary medicine,” “traditional medicine,” “integrative medicine,” and their related MeSH terms. Finally, we extracted the pertinent information from these articles and summarized the results.

RESULTS: The findings of this study showed that 17 clinical trials have been conducted till date in order to evaluate the efficacy of herbal remedies and complementary medicines in the treatment of chronic pruritus. Herbal remedies including turmeric, Fumaria parviflora, Avena sativa, capsaicin, sweet almond oil, peppermint oil, violet oil, vinegar, as well as manual therapies including aromatherapy, auricular acupressure, and acupuncture, were significantly effective in the treatment of chronic pruritus.

CONCLUSION: There are only a few studies published on the therapeutic efficacy of herbal remedies and complementary medicine in the treatment of chronic pruritus. Some have shown promising results. Therefore, more evidence-based studies are needed in order to determine if herbal remedies and complementary medicine could be an effective alternative or adjuvant treatment modality in chronic pruritus.

© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

PMID: 35579366


Assess of Combinations of Non-Pharmacological Interventions for the Reduction of Irritability in Patients with Dementia and their Caregivers: A Cross-Over RCT.

August 16, 2022

Brain Sci, 2022 vol. 12(6) p. 691

Assess of Combinations of Non-Pharmacological Interventions for the Reduction of Irritability in Patients with Dementia and their Caregivers: A Cross-Over RCT.

Dimitriou, T; Papatriantafyllou, J; Konsta, A; Kazis, D; Athanasiadis, L; Ioannidis, P; Koutsouraki, E; Tegos, T; Tsolaki, M

INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a very common disorder that affects people over 65 years old all over the world. Apart from the cognitive decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a crucial matter in dementia, because they affect up to 90% of the patients during the course of their illness. Irritability has been found to be a common BPSD and one of the most distressing behaviors for the caregivers. The aim of the current study was to explore the efficacy of a combination of non-pharmacological interventions to treat irritability.

METHODS: Sixty patients with different types and stages of dementia with irritability were participated in a cross-over RCT. Three non-pharmacological interventions were used; (a) Validation Therapy (VT)/Psycho-educational program, (b) Aromatherapy/massage and (c) Music Therapy (MT). The study assessed the three non-pharmacological interventions in order to find the most effective combination of the interventions. This study did not compare pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The interventions lasted for five days. There was no drop-out rate. All patients were assessed at baseline using Mini Mental State of Examination (MMSE), Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Functional Rating Scale for symptoms in dementia (FRSSD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (sub questions for irritability). Only NPI used for the assessment after each intervention. The analyses used categorical variables, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Chi-square test and z value score.

RESULTS: The most effective combination of non-pharmacological interventions was Aromatherapy/massage (p = 0.003)-VT plus Psycho-educational program (p = 0.014) plus MT (p = 0.018). The same combination was the most effective for the caregivers’ burden, too (p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: The above combination of non-pharmacological interventions can reduce irritability in patients with dementia and caregivers’ burden.

PMID: 35741577


Prevalence of endocrine disorders among children exposed to Lavender Essential Oil and Tea Tree Essential Oils.

August 16, 2022

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2022 vol. 9(2) pp. 117-124

Prevalence of endocrine disorders among children exposed to Lavender Essential Oil and Tea Tree Essential Oils.

Hawkins, J; Hires, C; Dunne, E; Keenan, L

Background: Lavender essential oil and tea tree essential oil have become popular ingredients in personal care and household products in recent decades. Questions regarding the safety of these oils in pediatric populations have been raised, proposing a link between these essential oils and endocrine disruption in children, specifically prepubertal gynecomastia. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate this proposed link.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among parents of children in the United States to identify the prevalence of endocrine disruption in children aged 2-15 years old. This study also evaluates the potential for a relationship between the exposure of lavender essential oil and tea tree essential oil products and endocrine disrupting outcomes.

Results: In 556 children with a mean age of 6.33 (SD = 3.92), prevalence of endocrine disruption was .016 (SD = 0.13). No cases of prepubertal gynecomastia were identified in either group, and prevalence of precocious puberty, delayed puberty, growth hormone deficiency, and hypothyroidism were all consistent with population norms. Total risk of endocrine disorders among those exposed (0.0194) did not differ from the risk of those unexposed (0.0069). The risk ratio was 2.796 (95% CI: 0.352, 22.163, P = .458).

Conclusion: Children who were regularly exposed to lavender or tea tree essential oils experienced the same risk of endocrine disorders as those who were not exposed.

© 2021 Publishing services provided by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (General Organization), Saudi Arabia.

PMID: 35663791

PMCID: PMC9152575

Essential oil nebulization in mild COVID-19(EONCO): Early phase exploratory clinical trial.

August 16, 2022

J Ayurveda Integr Med, 2022 p. 100626

Essential oil nebulization in mild COVID-19(EONCO): Early phase exploratory clinical trial.

Rathod, R; Mohindra, R; Vijayakumar, A; Soni, RK; Kaur, R; Kumar, A; Hegde, N; Anand, A; Sharma, S; Suri, V; Goyal, K; Ghosh, A; Bhalla, A; Gamad, N; Singh, A; Patil, AN

Background: Medications studied for therapeutic benefits in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have produced inconclusive efficacy results except for steroids.

Aim: A prospective randomized open-label, parallel-arm Phase I/II clinical trial was planned to compare essential oil (EO) blend versus placebo nebulization in mild COVID-19.

Methods: A Phase I safety evaluation was carried out in a single ascending and multiple ascending dose study designs. We assessed Phase II therapeutic efficacy on COVID-19 and general respiratory symptoms on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 on the predesigned case record form. Viremia was evaluated on day 0, day 5, and day 10.

Results: Dose-limiting toxicities were not reached with the doses, frequencies, and duration studied, thus confirming the formulation’s preliminary safety. General respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001), anosmia (p < 0.05), and dysgeusia (p < 0.001) benefited significantly with the use of EO blend nebulization compared to placebo. Symptomatic COVID-19 participants with mild disease did not show treatment benefits in terms of symptomatic relief (p = 1.0) and viremia clearance (p = 0.74) compared to the placebo. EO blend was found to be associated with the reduced evolution of symptoms in previously asymptomatic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive study participants (p = 0.034).

Conclusion: EO nebulization appears to be a safer add-on symptomatic relief approach for mild COVID-19. However, the direct antiviral action of the EO blend needs to be assessed with different concentrations of combinations of individual phytochemicals in the EO blend.

© 2022 The Authors.

PMID: 35813974

PMCID: PMC9257088


Antibacterial and Oxidative Stress-Protective Effects of Five Monoterpenes from Softwood.

August 16, 2022

Molecules, 2022 vol. 27(12) p.E 3891

Antibacterial and Oxidative Stress-Protective Effects of Five Monoterpenes from Softwood.

Muilu-Mäkelä, R; Aapola, U; Tienaho, J; Uusitalo, H; Sarjala, T

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) affect the quality of indoor air. Terpenes and especially monoterpenes are the main molecules emitted from softwood material (coniferous species), which is widely used in construction. The corneal epithelium is one of the first human membranes to encounter VOCs in the air. Moreover, the industrial use of pleasant-scented monoterpenes in cosmetics, food, and detergents exposes people to monoterpenes in their daily lives. In the present study, the health effective properties of five monoterpenes from softwood were tested; cytotoxicity and oxidative stress-protective effects of α- and β-pinenes, R- and S-limonene, and 3-carene were tested in a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell model system and with two additional in vitro antioxidant tests: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging. Antibacterial efficacies were tested with two bioluminescent bacterial biosensor strains (Escherichia coli K12+pcGLS11 and Staphylococcus aureus RN4220+pAT19) and with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test against Escherichia coli. Only very high concentrations of monoterpenes (0.3-0.5 mg/mL) demonstrated cytotoxicity against HCE cells. Contrary to the original hypothesis, monoterpenes did not exhibit strong antioxidant properties in tested concentrations. However, biosensors and MIC tests indicated clear antibacterial activities for all tested monoterpenes.

PMID: 35745011


Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications.

August 16, 2022

Nutrients, 2020 vol. 12(10)

Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications.

Hashiesh, HM; Meeran, MFN; Sharma, C; Sadek, B; Kaabi, JA; Ojha, SK

Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide across developed as well as developing nations. Hyperglycemia is the core feature of the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), following insulin deficiency and impaired insulin secretion or sensitivity leads insulin resistance (IR), respectively. Genetic and environmental factors attributed to the pathogenesis of DM and various therapeutic strategies are available for the prevention and treatment of T2DM. Among the numerous therapeutic approaches, the health effects of dietary/nutraceutical approach due to the presence of bioactive constituents, popularly termed phytochemicals are receiving special interest for pharmacological effects and therapeutic benefits. The phytochemicals classes, in particular sesquiterpenes received attention because of potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects and health benefits mediating modulation of enzymes, receptors, and signaling pathways deranged in DM and its complications. One of the terpene compounds, β-caryophyllene (BCP), received enormous attention because of its abundant occurrence, non-psychoactive nature, and dietary availability through consumption of edible plants including spices. BCP exhibit selective full agonism on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R), an important component of endocannabinoid system, and plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and represents the newest drug target for chronic inflammatory diseases. BCP also showed agonist action on peroxisome proliferated activated receptor subtypes, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, the main target of currently used fibrates and imidazolidinones for dyslipidemia and IR, respectively. Many studies demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, organoprotective, and antihyperglycemic properties. In the present review, the plausible therapeutic potential of BCP in diabetes and associated complications has been comprehensively elaborated based on experimental and a few clinical studies available. Further, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of BCP in diabetes and its complications have been represented using synoptic tables and schemes. Given the safe status, abundant natural occurrence, oral bioavailability, dietary use and pleiotropic properties modulating receptors and enzymes, BCP appears as a promising molecule for diabetes and its complications.

PMID: 32998300

PMCID: PMC7599522


Potent In Vitro Activity of Citrus aurantium Essential Oil and Vitis vinifera Hydrolate Against Gut Yeast Isolates from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients—The Right Mix for Potential Therapeutic Use.

August 16, 2022

Nutrients, 2020 vol. 12(5)

Potent In Vitro Activity of Citrus aurantium Essential Oil and Vitis vinifera Hydrolate Against Gut Yeast Isolates from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients—The Right Mix for Potential Therapeutic Use.

Di, Vito M; Bellardi, MG; Sanguinetti, M; Mondello, F; Girolamo, A; Barbanti, L; Garzoli, S; Sabatino, M; Ragno, R; Vitali, A; Palucci, I; Posteraro, B; Gasbarrini, A; Prati, GM; Aragona, G; Mattarelli, P; Bugli, F

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder without any pathological alteration, in which the alterations of the Candida/Saccharomyces ratio of the gut microbiota, the balance of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the brain-gut-microbiome axis are important for the development and progression of IBS. The aim of the study was to identify natural products, including essential oils or hydrolates, which were contextually harmless for the gut beneficial strains (e.g., Saccharomyces spp.) but inhibitory for the pathogenic ones (Candida spp.). Methods: The effectiveness of 6 essential oils and 2 hydrolates was evaluated using microbiological tests, carried out on 50 clinical isolates (Candida, Saccharomyces and Galattomyces species) and 9 probiotic strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus species, Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and immunological and antioxidant assays. Results: The study led to a mixture based on a 1/100 ratio of Citrus aurantium var. amara essential oil / Vitis vinifera cv Italia hydrolate able to contextually reduce, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ability of Candida species to form hyphal filaments and have an interesting immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant action. This mixture can potentially be useful in the IBS treatment promoting the restoration of the intestinal microbial and immunological balance.